CobIT 5

11 12 2012

COBIT.

Cobit atau Control Objective for Information and Related Technology.

Informasi.

Merupakan sumber daya utama untuk semua perusahaan. Informasi tersebut diciptakan, digunakan, disimpan, dan pada akhirnya dimusnahkan.

Manfaat yang di peroleh oleh Enterprise :

  •        Menjaga kualitas informasi untuk memebantu pengambilan keputusaan.
  •        Mencapai keunggulan operasional melalui penerapan TI yang handal dan efisien.
  •        Mengoptimalkan biaya penggunaan IT service dan Teknologi.
  •        Menghasilkan nilai bisnis dari investasi pemanfaatan TI.
  •        Menjaga resiko yang masih dapat di toleransi.

Pengertian COBIT.

Merupakan suatu kerangka kerja tata kelola IT dan kumpulan alat yang mendukung serta memungkinkan para manajer ataupun para top manajemen untuk menjembatani jarak yang ada di antara kebutuhan yang di kendalikan. Serta COBIT dapat mempermudah perkembangan peraturan.

Definisi COBIT 5

Adalah sebuah perkembangan strategis yang besar dan menyediakan panduan generasi berikutnya dari ISACA pada tata kelola dan manajemen untuk enterprise information technology

Penciptaan Nilai COBIT 5

  •         Untuk menyajikan enterprise stake holder value.
  •        Kebutuhan para penegak hokum.
  •        COBIT 5 menyediakan kerangka yang lengkap.

Fungsi COBIT 5 Framework :

  •         Membantu perusahaan untuk menciptakan nilai IT yang optimal.
  •        Memungkinkan informasi dan teknologi yang berhubungan untuk dikelola dan diatur dengan cara yang menyeluruh pada setiap bagian perusahaan.

Cobit Principles and Enablers.

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Tata Kelola

Adalah kegiatan memastikan bahwa tujuan perusahaan dapat dicapai dengan melakukan evaluasi (evaluating) terhadap kebutuhan, menetapkan arah(direction) dan pengawasan (monitoring) pada saat pelaksanaan, penyesuaian dan kemajuan terhadap arah dan tujuan yang telah disetujui (EDM).

PBRM (Managemen Plan, Build, Runs, and Monitor)

 Adalah aktivitas-aktivitas yang selaras dengan arah yang telah ditentukan oleh badan pemerintahan untuk mencapai tujuan perusahaan.

BMIS ( Business Model for Information Security )

Sebuah pendekatan yang menyeluruh dan business-oriented untuk mengatur keamanan informasi (information security), dan sebuah istilah yang umum untuk keamanan informasi serta manajemen bisnis yang berbicara tentang manajemen bisnis yang berbicara tentang kemanan informasi.

6 Komponen BMIS

  •         Organisasi.
  •        Proses.
  •        Orang.
  •       Faktor Manusia.
  •        Teknologi, dan
  •        Kebudayaan.

Komponen yang lebih besar dari BMIS :

  •        Governing. ( merupakan alat tata kelola perusahaan ).
  •        Architecture. ( Berhubungan dengan aspek arsitektur perusahaan ).
  •        Emergence. ( Pendukung COBIT 5 yang mampu membantu perusahaan untuk bias beradaptasi dengan perubahan ).

Implementasi COBIT 5

 

  •        Perkembangan dari Governance of Enterprise IT ( GEIT ) secara luas dan di akui oleh Top Manajemen sebagai alat pengambil keputusan.
  •        Informasi dan kegunaan dari TI terus berkembang.
  •        ISACA telah mengembangkan kerangka kerja COBIT 5.
  •        Kebutuhan untuk menggunakan lebih banyak manfaat dari investasi TI.
  •        Dengan meningkatnya peraturan perundangan tentang keamanan informasi maka meningkatkan pula kewaspadaan pentingnya penggunaan tata kelola.
  •       Menerapkan GEIT yang baik, tanpa melibatkan kerangka kerja tata kelola.

Penerapan COBIT 5 :

  •        Penentuan posisi GEIT dalam perusahaan.
  •        Mengambil langkah pertama untuk perbaikan GEIT.
  •        Pelaksanaan tantangan serta factor keberhasilan.
  •        Menerapkan perbaikan berkelanjutan.
  •        Menggunakan COBIT 5 beserta komponennya.
  •        Memungkinkan GEIT yang terkait dengan suatu perubahan.

COBIT 5 Security

  •        Fokus pada sistem manajemen keamanan informasi (Information Security Management System) dalam menyelaraskan, merencanakan dan mengatur (APO) manajemen domain, APO13 Manage Security, menetapkan keunggulan keamanan informasi dalam kerangka proses COBIT 5.
  •        Proses ini menyoroti kebutuhan perusahan guna untuk merencanakan dan membangun ISMS yang mendukung prinsip tata kelola keamanan informasi.




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Project Management

Project

  • Is a set of activities with a clear beginning and end.

Each project has

  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Tasks
    • Limitations

Project Requirements:

  • Process
  • Tools
    • Techniques

Five Phase of Project Management

  1. Initating/Defining
  2. Planning
  3. Executing
  4. Controling
  5. Closing

Three key elements of project management

  1. Time
  2. Quality/Features
  3. Cost

The project management process elements:

  1. estimate
  2. schedule/plan
  3. monitoring and control
    1. documentation.

Estimation

Estimation allows the project manager  to plan for the resources required for project execution through establishing the number and size of tasks that need to be completed in the project.

  • Estimate effort time for average person to undertake task.
  • Estimate different work rates and availability of staff.
  • Allocate resources (staff) to task.
  • Calculate elapsed time on the basis of the number of staff, availability and work rate.
    • Schedule task in relation to other tasks.
  1. Work breakdown Structure (WBS): This is a

breakdown of the project or a piece of work into its

component parts (tasks).

  1. Project constraints: Projects can be resourceconstrained

(limited by the type of people, monetary or

hardware resources available) or time-constrained

(limited by the deadline).

Constructive cost model (COCOMO): A model used to estimate the amount of effort required to complete a project on the basis of the estimated number of lines of program code

where:

  • WM = number of person months,
  • C = one of three constant values dependent on development mode,
  • KDSI = delivered source lines of code 1000,
  • K = one of three constant values dependent on development mode,
  • EAF = effort adjustment factor.

Function point analysis: A method of estimating the

time it will take to build a system by counting up the

number of functions and data inputs and outputs and then

comparing to completed projects.

The five user function categories are:

  • number of external input types;
  • number of external output types;
  • number of logical internal file types;
  • number of external interface file types;
  • external enquiry types.

Scheduling

  • Scheduling: Scheduling involves determining when project activities should be executed.
  • The finished schedule is termed the project plan.
  • Resource allocation: This activity involves assigning a resource to each task.

Monitoring and control

  • Monitoring involves ensuring that the project isworking to plan once it is started.
  • Control is taking corrective action if the project deviates from the plan.

PRINCE: A project management methodology that has been developed to be compatible with the system development methodologies such as SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis & Design Method) .

PRINCE defines four main project aims:

  • to deliver the required end-product(s)
  • to meet the specified quality
  • to stay within budget
  • to deliver on schedule

The Critical Path

  • Critical path: Activities on the critical path are termed critical activities. Any delay in these activities will cause a delay in the project completion time.
  • Critical path method (CPM): Critical path diagrams show the relationship between activities in a project.

Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

  • PERT: PERT replaces the fixed activity duration used inthe CPM method with a statistical distribution which uses optimistic, pessimistic and most likely duration estimates.
  • Where t(e) is the Expected time, t(o) is the Optimistic time, t(m) is the most probable activity time and t(p) is the Pessimistic time.




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Developing Business/IT Solutions

The Systems Approach

  • A problem solving technique that uses a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop appropriate and feasible solutions.
  • Analyzing a problem and formulating a solution involves the following interrelated activities:

1.Recognize and define a problem or opportunity using systems thinking

2.Develop and evaluate alternative system solutions

3.Select the system solution that best meets your requirements

4.Design the selected system solution

5.Implement and evaluate the success of the designed system

What is Systems Thinking?

  • Seeing the forest andthe trees in any situation by:
    • Seeing interrelationshipsamong systemsrather than linear cause-and-effect chains whenever events occur
    • Seeing processesof change among systemsrather than discrete snapshots of change, whenever changes occur

Initiating Systems Development

  • Systems development initiatives
    • Arise from all levels of an organization
    • Can be planned or unplanned
  • Number of reasons for initiating systems development projects
    • Infrastructure protection, mergers, acquisitions, federal regulations, etc.

Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals

  • Information systems planning:translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives
  • Aligning organizational goals and IS goals
    • Critical for successful systems development effort
  • Developing a competitive advantage

Establishing Objectives for Systems Development

  • Overall objective of systems development: achieve business goals, not technical goals
  • Mission-critical systems:play pivotal role in organization’s continued operations and goal attainment
  • Goals defined for an organization also define objectives
  • Critical success factors (CSFs):factors essential to success of a functional area of an organization
  • Performance objectives
    • Output quality or usefulness
    • Output accuracy
    • Output format quality or usefulness
    • Speed at which output is produced
    • Scalability of resulting system
    • Risk of the system
    • Cost objectives
      • Development costs
      • Costs of uniqueness of system application
      • Fixed investments in hardware and related equipment
      • Ongoing operating costs

Systems Analysis and Design

  • SA & D
    • Overall process by which IS are designed and implemented within organizations
  • Two most common approaches to SA & D
    • Object-oriented analysis and design
    • Systems Development Life Cycle

Systems Investigation Stage

  • Do we have business opportunities?
  • What are our business priorities?
  • How can information technologies provide information systems solutions that address our business priorities?

Feasibility Study

  • A preliminary study where
    • the information needs of prospective users
    • the resource requirements, costs, benefits,
    • and feasibility of a proposed project
  • are determined

=========================

  • Macam-macam Studi Kelayakan
    • Operational Feasibility
    • Economic Feasibility
    • Technical Feasibility
    • Human Factors Feasibility
    • Legal/Political Feasibility

Economic Feasibility

  • Assess:
    • Cost savings
    • Increased revenue
    • Decreased investment requirements
    • Increased profits
  • Cost/benefit analysis
  • Costs versus Benefits
  • Tangiblecosts and benefits can be quantified with a high degree of certainty
    • Example: decrease in operating costs
    • Intangiblecosts and benefits are harder to estimate
      • Example: improved customer service

Technical Feasibility

  • Determine if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required time
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Network

Human Factors Feasibility

  • Assess
    • Employee, customer, supplier acceptance
    • Management support
    • The right people for the various new or revised roles

Legal/Political Feasibility

  • Assess
    • Possible patent or copyright violations
    • Software licensing for developer side only
    • Governmental restrictions
    • Changes to existing reporting structure

Role of the Systems Analyst

  • Systems Analysis
  • Organizational Analysis
  • Logical Analysis

Functional Requirements Analysis and Determination

  • Determine specific business information needs

1.Determine what type of information each business activity requires.

2.Determine the information processing each system activity is needed to meet these needs.

Functional Requirements

  • End user information requirements
  • Whatthe system must do
  • Functional Requirement categories
    • User Interface
    • Processing
    • Storage
    • Control

Systems Design

•Modify the logical model until it represents a blueprint for what the new system will do

Prototyping

•The rapid development and testing of working models

Refining During Prototyping

  • User Interface Design
  • System Specifications
  • End User Development
  • Systems Implementation