Resume Konsep Sistem Informasi Pertemuan 8 (99,99%)

15 11 2012

Developing Business/IT Solutions

The Systems Approach

  • A problem solving technique that uses a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop appropriate and feasible solutions.
  • Analyzing a problem and formulating a solution involves the following interrelated activities:

1.Recognize and define a problem or opportunity using systems thinking

2.Develop and evaluate alternative system solutions

3.Select the system solution that best meets your requirements

4.Design the selected system solution

5.Implement and evaluate the success of the designed system

What is Systems Thinking?

  • Seeing the forest andthe trees in any situation by:
    • Seeing interrelationshipsamong systemsrather than linear cause-and-effect chains whenever events occur
    • Seeing processesof change among systemsrather than discrete snapshots of change, whenever changes occur

Initiating Systems Development

  • Systems development initiatives
    • Arise from all levels of an organization
    • Can be planned or unplanned
  • Number of reasons for initiating systems development projects
    • Infrastructure protection, mergers, acquisitions, federal regulations, etc.

Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals

  • Information systems planning:translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives
  • Aligning organizational goals and IS goals
    • Critical for successful systems development effort
  • Developing a competitive advantage

Establishing Objectives for Systems Development

  • Overall objective of systems development: achieve business goals, not technical goals
  • Mission-critical systems:play pivotal role in organization’s continued operations and goal attainment
  • Goals defined for an organization also define objectives
  • Critical success factors (CSFs):factors essential to success of a functional area of an organization
  • Performance objectives
    • Output quality or usefulness
    • Output accuracy
    • Output format quality or usefulness
    • Speed at which output is produced
    • Scalability of resulting system
    • Risk of the system
    • Cost objectives
      • Development costs
      • Costs of uniqueness of system application
      • Fixed investments in hardware and related equipment
      • Ongoing operating costs

Systems Analysis and Design

  • SA & D
    • Overall process by which IS are designed and implemented within organizations
  • Two most common approaches to SA & D
    • Object-oriented analysis and design
    • Systems Development Life Cycle

Systems Investigation Stage

  • Do we have business opportunities?
  • What are our business priorities?
  • How can information technologies provide information systems solutions that address our business priorities?

Feasibility Study

  • A preliminary study where
    • the information needs of prospective users
    • the resource requirements, costs, benefits,
    • and feasibility of a proposed project
  • are determined

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  • Macam-macam Studi Kelayakan
    • Operational Feasibility
    • Economic Feasibility
    • Technical Feasibility
    • Human Factors Feasibility
    • Legal/Political Feasibility

Economic Feasibility

  • Assess:
    • Cost savings
    • Increased revenue
    • Decreased investment requirements
    • Increased profits
  • Cost/benefit analysis
  • Costs versus Benefits
  • Tangiblecosts and benefits can be quantified with a high degree of certainty
    • Example: decrease in operating costs
    • Intangiblecosts and benefits are harder to estimate
      • Example: improved customer service

Technical Feasibility

  • Determine if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required time
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Network

Human Factors Feasibility

  • Assess
    • Employee, customer, supplier acceptance
    • Management support
    • The right people for the various new or revised roles

Legal/Political Feasibility

  • Assess
    • Possible patent or copyright violations
    • Software licensing for developer side only
    • Governmental restrictions
    • Changes to existing reporting structure

Role of the Systems Analyst

  • Systems Analysis
  • Organizational Analysis
  • Logical Analysis

Functional Requirements Analysis and Determination

  • Determine specific business information needs

1.Determine what type of information each business activity requires.

2.Determine the information processing each system activity is needed to meet these needs.

Functional Requirements

  • End user information requirements
  • Whatthe system must do
  • Functional Requirement categories
    • User Interface
    • Processing
    • Storage
    • Control

Systems Design

•Modify the logical model until it represents a blueprint for what the new system will do

Prototyping

•The rapid development and testing of working models

Refining During Prototyping

  • User Interface Design
  • System Specifications
  • End User Development
  • Systems Implementation

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