Resume Konsep Sistem Informasi Pertemuan 9 (99,99%)

15 11 2012

Project Management


  • Is a set of activities with a clear beginning and end.

Each project has

  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Tasks
    • Limitations

Project Requirements:

  • Process
  • Tools
    • Techniques

Five Phase of Project Management

  1. Initating/Defining
  2. Planning
  3. Executing
  4. Controling
  5. Closing

Three key elements of project management

  1. Time
  2. Quality/Features
  3. Cost

The project management process elements:

  1. estimate
  2. schedule/plan
  3. monitoring and control
    1. documentation.


Estimation allows the project manager  to plan for the resources required for project execution through establishing the number and size of tasks that need to be completed in the project.

  • Estimate effort time for average person to undertake task.
  • Estimate different work rates and availability of staff.
  • Allocate resources (staff) to task.
  • Calculate elapsed time on the basis of the number of staff, availability and work rate.
    • Schedule task in relation to other tasks.
  1. Work breakdown Structure (WBS): This is a

breakdown of the project or a piece of work into its

component parts (tasks).

  1. Project constraints: Projects can be resourceconstrained

(limited by the type of people, monetary or

hardware resources available) or time-constrained

(limited by the deadline).

Constructive cost model (COCOMO): A model used to estimate the amount of effort required to complete a project on the basis of the estimated number of lines of program code


  • WM = number of person months,
  • C = one of three constant values dependent on development mode,
  • KDSI = delivered source lines of code 1000,
  • K = one of three constant values dependent on development mode,
  • EAF = effort adjustment factor.

Function point analysis: A method of estimating the

time it will take to build a system by counting up the

number of functions and data inputs and outputs and then

comparing to completed projects.

The five user function categories are:

  • number of external input types;
  • number of external output types;
  • number of logical internal file types;
  • number of external interface file types;
  • external enquiry types.


  • Scheduling: Scheduling involves determining when project activities should be executed.
  • The finished schedule is termed the project plan.
  • Resource allocation: This activity involves assigning a resource to each task.

Monitoring and control

  • Monitoring involves ensuring that the project isworking to plan once it is started.
  • Control is taking corrective action if the project deviates from the plan.

PRINCE: A project management methodology that has been developed to be compatible with the system development methodologies such as SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis & Design Method) .

PRINCE defines four main project aims:

  • to deliver the required end-product(s)
  • to meet the specified quality
  • to stay within budget
  • to deliver on schedule

The Critical Path

  • Critical path: Activities on the critical path are termed critical activities. Any delay in these activities will cause a delay in the project completion time.
  • Critical path method (CPM): Critical path diagrams show the relationship between activities in a project.

Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

  • PERT: PERT replaces the fixed activity duration used inthe CPM method with a statistical distribution which uses optimistic, pessimistic and most likely duration estimates.
  • Where t(e) is the Expected time, t(o) is the Optimistic time, t(m) is the most probable activity time and t(p) is the Pessimistic time.



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