Resume Konsep Sistem Informasi Pertemuan 11 (99,99%)

1 12 2012


What is ITIL ?

  • ITIL = Information Technology Infrastructure Library
  • Systematic approach to high quality IT service delivery
  • Documented best practice for IT Service Management
  • Provides common language with well-defined terms
  • Developed in 1980s by what is now The Office of Government Commerce itSMF (IT Service Management Forum) also involved in maintaining best practice documentation in ITIL itSMF is global, independent, not-for-profit

Key Concepts

  • Service, Delivers value to customer by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without ownership of the specific costs and risks
  • Service Level, Measured and reported achievement against one or more service level targets

E.g. :

  • Red = 1 hour response 24/7
  • Amber = 4 hour response 8/5
  • Green = Next business day
  • Service Level Agreement, Written and negotiated agreement between Service
    • Provider and Customer documenting agreed service levels and costs
    • Configuration Management System (CMS)
      • Tools and databases to manage IT service provider’s configuration data
      • Contains Configuration Management Database (CMDB)
      • Records hardware, software, documentation and anything else important to IT provision
      • Release
        • Collection of hardware, software, documentation, processes or other things require to implement one or more approved changes to IT Services
        • Incident
          • Unplanned interruption to an IT service or an unplanned reduction in its quality
          • Work-around
            • Reducing or eliminating the impact of an incident without resolving it
            • Problem
              • Unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents

4 Ps of Service Management

People – skills, training, communication

Processes – actions, activities, changes, goals

Products – tools, monitor, measure, improve

Partners – specialist suppliers

The Service Lifecycle

  1. Service Strategy
  2. Service Design
  3. Service Transition
  4. Service Operation
  5. Continual Service Improvement

Service Strategy (Activities)

  1. Define the Market
  2. Develop the Offerings
  3. Develop Strategic Assets
  4. Prepare for Execution

Service Assets

  • Resources
    • Things you buy or pay for
    • IT Infrastructure, people, money
    • Tangible Assets
    • Capabilities
      • Things you grow
      • Ability to carry out an activity
      • Intangible assets
      • Transform resources into Services

Service Portfolio Management

  • Prioritises and manages investments and resource allocation
  • Proposed services are properly assessed
    • Business Case
    • Existing Services Assessed. Outcomes:
      • Replace
      • Rationalise
      • Renew
      • Retire

Demand Management

  • Ensures we don’t waste money with excess capacity
  • Ensures we have enough capacity to meet demand at agreed quality
  • Patterns of Business Activity to be considered
    • E.g. Economy 7 electricity, Congestion Charging

Service Design

  • How are we going to provide it?
  • How are we going to build it?
  • How are we going to test it?
  • How are we going to deploy it?

Processes in Service Design

  • Availability Management
  • Capacity Management
  • ITSCM (disaster recovery)
  • Supplier Management
  • Service Level Management
  • Information Security Management
  • Service Catalogue Management

Service Level Management

  • Service Level Agreement (SLA)
    • Operational Level Agreements
    • Internal
      • Underpinning Contracts
      • External Organisation
      • Supplier Management
        • Can be an annexe to a contract
        • Should be clear and fair and written in easy-to-understand, unambiguous language
        • Success of SLM (KPIs)
          • How many services have SLAs?
          • How does the number of breaches of SLA change over time (we hope it reduces!)?

Types of SLA

  • Service-based
    • All customers get same deal for same services
    • Customer-based
      • Different customers get different deal (and different cost)
      • Multi-level
        • These involve corporate, customer and service levels and avoid repetition

Right Capacity, Right Time, Right Cost!

  • This is capacity management
  • Balances Cost against Capacity so minimises costs while maintaining quality of service


  • Ensure that IT services matches or exceeds agreed targets
  • Lots of Acronyms
    • Mean Time Between Service Incidents
    • Mean Time Between Failures
    • Mean Time to Restore Service
    • Resilience increases availability
      • Service can remain functional even though one or more of its components have failed

What is ITSCM ?

  • IT Service Continuity Management
  • Ensures resumption of services within agreed timescale
  • Business Impact Analysis informs decisions about resources
    • E.g. Stock Exchange can’t afford 5 minutes downtime but 2 hours downtime probably wont badly affect a departmental accounts office or a college bursary

Standby for liftoff…

  • Cold
    • Accommodation and environment ready but no IT equipment
    • Warm
      • As cold plus backup IT equipment to receive data
      • Hot
        • Full duplexing, redundancy and failover

Information Security Management

  • Confidentiality
    • Making sure only those authorised can see data
    • Integrity
      • Making sure the data is accurate and not corrupted
      • Availability
        • Making sure data is supplied when it is requested

Service Transition

  • Build
  • Deployment
  • Testing
  • User acceptance
  • Bed-in

Good service transition

  • Set customer expectations
  • Enable release integration
  • Reduce performance variation
  • Document and reduce known errors
  • Minimise risk
  • Ensure proper use of services
  • Some things excluded
    • Swapping failed device
    • Adding new user
    • Installing standard software

Knowledge management

  • Vital to enabling the right information to be provided at the right place and the right time to the right person to enable informed decision
  • Stops data being locked away with individuals
  • Obvious organisational advantage

Service Asset and Configuration

  • Managing these properly is key
  • Provides Logical Model of Infrastructure and Accurate Configuration information
  • Controls assets
  • Minimised costs
  • Enables proper change and release management
  • Speeds incident and problem resolution

Change Management

  • Respond to customers changing business requirements
  • Respond to business and IT requests for change that will align the services with the business needs
  • Roles
    • Change Manager
    • Change Authority
      • Change Advisory Board (CAB)
      • Emergency CAB (ECAB)
      • 80% of service interruption is caused by operator error or poor change control (Gartner)

Change Types

  • Normal
    • Non-urgent, requires approval
    • Standard
      • Non-urgent, follows established path, no approval needed
      • Emergency
        • Requires approval but too urgent for normal procedure

Change Advisory Board

  • Change Manager (VITAL)
  • One or more of
    • Customer/User
    • User Manager
    • Developer/Maintainer
    • Expert/Consultant
    • Contractor
    • CAB considers the 7 Rs

Release Management

  • Release is a collection of authorised and tested changes ready for deployment
  • A rollout introduces a release into the live environment
  • Full Release
    • e.g. Office 2007
    • Delta (partial) release
      • e.g. Windows Update
      • Package
        • e.g. Windows Service Pack

Phased or Big Bang?

  • Phased release is less painful but more work
  • Deploy can be manual or automatic
  • Automatic can be push or pull
  • Release Manager will produce a release policy
  • Release MUST be tested and NOT by the developer or the change instigator

Service Operation

  • Maintenance
  • Management
  • Realises Strategic Objectives and is where the Value is seen.

Processes in Service Operation

  • Incident Management
  • Problem Management
  • Event Management
  • Request Fulfilment
  • Access Management

Functions in Service Operation

  • Service Desk
  • Technical Management
  • IT Operations Management
  • Applications Management

Incident Management

  • Deals with unplanned interruptions to IT Servicesvor reductions in their quality
  • Failure of a configuration item that has not impacted a service is also an incident (e.g. Disk in RAID failure)
  • Reported by:
    • Users
    • Technical Staff
    • Monitoring Tools

Event Management

  • 3 Types of events
    • Information
    • Warning
    • Exception

Request Fulfilment

  • Information, advice or a standard change
  • Should not be classed as Incidents or Changes

Problem Management

  • Aims to prevent problems and resulting incidents
  • Minimises impact of unavoidable incidents
  • Eliminates recurring incidents
  • Proactive Problem Management
    • Identifies areas of potential weakness
    • Identifies workarounds
    • Reactive Problem Management
      • Indentifies underlying causes of incidents
      • Identifies changes to prevent recurrence

Access Management

  • Right things for right users at right time
  • Concepts
    • Access
    • Identity (Authentication, AuthN)
    • Rights (Authorisation, AuthZ)
    • Service Group
    • Directory

Service Desk

  • Local, Central or Virtual
  • Single point of contact
  • Skills for operators
    • Customer Focus
    • Articulate
    • Interpersonal Skills (patient!)
    • Understand Business
    • Methodical/Analytical
    • Technical knowledge
    • Multi-lingual
    • Service desk often seen as the bottom of the pile
      • Bust most visible to customers so important to get right!

Continual Service Improvement

  • Focus on Process owners and Service Owners
  • Ensures that service management processes continue to support the business
  • Monitor and enhance Service Level Achievements
  • Plan – do –check – act

Service Measurement

  • Technology (components, MTBF etc)
  • Process (KPIs – Critical Success Factors)
  • Service (End-to end, e.g. Customer Satisfaction)
  • Why?
    • Validation – Soundness of decisions
    • Direction – of future activities
    • Justify – provide factual evidence
    • Intervene – when changes or corrections are needed

7 Steps to Improvement

  • What should we measure?
  • What can we measure?
  • Gather data
  • Process Data
  • Analyse
  • Present and use info
  • Corrective action

ITIL Roles

  • Process Owner
    • Ensures Fit for Purpose
    • Process Manager
      • Monitors and Reports on Process
      • Service Owner
        • Accountable for Delivery
        • Service Manager
          • Responsible for initiation, transition and maintenance.

# Lifecycle! #

  • Business Relationship Manager
  • Service Asset & Configuration
    • Service Asset Manager
    • Service Knowledge Manager
    • Configuration Manager
    • Configuration Analyst
    • Configuration Librarian
    • CMS tools administrator

Functions and Processes

  • Process
    • Structured set of activities designed to accomplish a defined objective
    • Inputs & Outputs
    • Measurable
    • Function
      • Team or group of people and tools they use to carry out one or more processes or activities
      • Own practices and knowledge body



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